By enabling far more demand-side management and more efficient use of the grid itself, smart grid investments can reduce or avoid dispatch of peak and high-emission power plants, and enable greater integration of clean, low-carbon generation and electric vehicles. With power plant owners facing new air, water and coal ash regulations and decisions on whether to retrofit or replace significant portions of their fleets, can smart grid investments provide an alternative low-cost path to maintaining reliable power? How can the impact of smart grid investments on emissions be forecast and quantified? How can those pollution reductions be valued in markets and toward regulatory compliance? Who’s doing best practices or leading-edge thinking on these issues?